Cohesive sediments form flocs through the flocculation process. The size and density of floc are variable whereas those of a fine sediment are always assumed to be constant. The settling velocity, one of main factors of sediment transport, is determined by size and density of particle. Therefore, the flocculation process plays an important role in transport of cohesive sediment. It is of great difficulty to directly measure the density of floc in the field due to technical limitation at present. It is a popular approach to estimate the density of floc by applying the fractal theory. The main assumption of fractal theory is the self-similarity. This study aims to examine the applicability of fractal theory to cohesive sediment in small rivers of Korea. Sampling sediment has been conducted in two different basins of Geum river and Yeongsan river. The results of settling experiments using commercial camera show that the sediment in Geum river basin follows the main concept of fractal theory whereas the sediment in Yeongsan river basin does not have a clear relationship between floc size and fractal dimension. It is known from this finding that the fractal theory is not easily applicable under the condition that the cohesive sediment includes the high content of organic matter.