High population density in deltaic settings, especially in Asia, tends to increase and causes coastal flood risk because of lower elevations
and significant subsidence. Large flood annually causes numerous deaths and huge economic losses. In this paper, an innovative
technology of spatial satellite imagery has been used as tool to analyze the socio-economic flood-related damage in Mekong river basin.
The relationship between nightlight intensity and flood damages has been determined for the period of 1992-2013 with a spatial
resolution of 30 arc sec (0.0083°), which is nearly one kilometer at the equator. Flow path distance was calculated to identify the distance
of each cell to river network and to examine how nightlight intensity correlate to the area close to and far from river network. Statistical
analysis results highlight the significant correlation between nocturnal luminosity intensity and flood-related damages in countries
along the Mekong river (i.e., Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam). This result reveals that the areas close to the river
network correspond to high human distribution and causes huge damage during flooding. The result may provide key information to the
region with respect to decisions, attentions, and mitigation strategies.