Previous studies on reservoir operation have been assumed that the climate in the future would be similar to that in the past. However, in the presence of climate non-stationarity, Robust Optimization (RO) which finds the feasible solutions under broader uncertainty is necessary. RO improves the existing optimization method by adding a robust term to the objective function that controls the uncertainty inherent due to input data instability. This study proposed Robust-SDP that combines Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) and RO to estimate dam operation rules while coping with climate non-stationarity. The future inflow series that reflect climate non-stationarity were synthetically generated. We then evaluated the capacity of the dam operation rules obtained from the past inflow series based on six evaluation indicators and two decision support schemes. Although Robust-SDP was successful in reducing the incidence of extreme water scarcity events under climate non-stationarity, there was a trade-off between the number of extreme water scarcity events and the water scarcity ratio. Thus, it is proposed that decision-makers choose their optimal rules in reference to the evaluation results and decision support illustrations.