Korea’s water transmission system is operated by the nonpressure flow method that flows from highlands to lowlands due to the nature of Korea with many mountainous areas. In order to store water in the highlands, the water pumps are installed and operated. However, In this process, a lot of electrical energy is consumed. therefore, it is necessary to minimize the energy consumption by optimizing the size and operation schedule of the water pumps. The optimal capacity and operation method of the water pump are affected by the size of the tank (distributing reservoir). Therefore, in order to economically design and operate the water transmission system, it is reasonable to consider both the construction cost of the water pump and the tank and the long-term operation cost of the water pump at the step of determining the scale of the initial facilities. In this study, the optimum design model was developed that can optimize both the optimal size of the water pump and the tank and the operation scheduling of the water pump by using the genetic algorithm (GA). The developed model was verified by applying it to the water transmission systems operated in Korea. It is expected that this study will help to estimate the optimal size of the water pump and the tank in the initial design of the water transmission system.